aggressive periodontitis bacteria

aggressive periodontitis bacteria

Newer generations of regenerative materials and advances in tissue engineering for regeneration and genetic engineering to modify the genetic risk factors seem to be really promising in the future. In order to maintain the optimal results got by surgery and to prevent the recurrence of the disease, a lifelong maintenance therapy is mandatory because of the strong genetic susceptibility of the individual to the disease. Family history revealed that the patient’s mother had similar complaints of mobility, pus discharge, and spontaneous exfoliation of some teeth following which she consulted a dentist and underwent total extraction by the age of 40. 19. Aggressive periodontitis is often characterised by a rapid loss of periodontal attachment associated with highly pathogenic bacteria and an impaired immune response. Gingiva may be tender, fiery red, edematous, soft, and boggy. Pus discharge was associated with bad breath and usually subsided spontaneously after a few weeks. The amount of microbial deposits will be inconsistent with the amount of destruction when compared to chronic periodontitis and plaque will be minimal. Subjects and Methods . An OPG and full-mouth IOPA X-ray were performed which revealed the generalized distribution of alveolar bone loss which was a combination of both horizontal and vertical bone loss (Figure 7). The maintenance therapy starts soon after the phase I therapy or nonsurgical therapy and should be continued throughout the lifetime of the patient. Aggressive periodontitis, first described in 1923 as “diffuse atrophy of the alveolar bone” [6], has undergone a series of terminology changes over the years to be finally named as “aggressive periodontitis” in 1999 [1, 7]. Evaluation after 3 weeks showed complete absence of bleeding on probing, exudation, and significant reduction in probing pocket depth. In addition, the defect at site 33 was treated with guided tissue regeneration (GTR) with bioresorbable collagen membrane in conjunction with synthetic bone graft (HAP) (Figures 12(a)–12(f)). Background: Recent findings have begun to provide a basis for a causal link between herpesviruses and aggressive periodontitis. This study examined whether the presence of herpesviruses [human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) type 1, herpes simplex virus … In Morocco, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been strongly associated with AgP, however limited knowledge is available about the implication of other periodontal pathogens in this entity. Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is a disease characterized by rapid loss of periodontal tissues affecting systemically healthy individuals under age of 30 years. With further understanding of the genetic risk factors, a futuristic application of genetic screening tests will be in identifying the susceptible individuals and instituting the preventive measures to keep the gene expression and thus the disease under control [105, 106]. Synthetic grafts/alloplastic grafts have been considered primarily as defect fillers. Gum inflammation associated with aggressive periodontitis can be severe. Patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis usually present with intense gingival inflammation, but that may or may not be the case with localized aggressive periodontitis. The disease which includes both localized and generalized forms was previously known as “early onset periodontitis” which included the three categories of periodontitis—prepubertal, juvenile, and rapidly progressing periodontitis [8, 9]. gingivalis, and T. denticola were the predominant periodontopathic bacteria of aggressive periodontitis patients, Although A. actinomycetemcomitans was also detected in AgP patients, the prevalence of this bacterium was much lower than lower than that of P. gingivalis. Periodontal disease is usually a chronic disease taking many months to develop. The most common form of gingivitis, and the most common form of periodontal disease overall, is in response to bacterial biofilms (also called plaque) that is attached to tooth surfaces, termed plaque-induced gingivitis.Most forms of gingivitis are plaque-induced. Curettage for granulation tissue removal was done following which a through subgingival debridement and root planning was performed. Proximal contacts were lost between the teeth 14 and 13, 13 and 12, 21 and 22 and 22 and 23, 22 and 24 and between lower anterior teeth. It aims at attending the psychologic effect and potential mental depression following tooth loss due to rapid periodontal destruction which provides the patient with relatively less time to cope with the situation. Systemically administered antibiotics with or without scaling and root planning and/or surgery provided greater clinical improvement in attachment level change compared to similar periodontal therapy without antibiotics [45]. J Periodontol 2001;72:1463-9. Routine blood examination results were within normal limits. There were no abnormalities detected in extra oral examination except for a slightly tender and palpable left submandibular lymph node. Aggressive periodontitis can be localized or generalized. Depression, anxiety and social withdrawal are seen in patients with tooth loss, and resulting compromised esthetics can be helped with therapy, relaxation techniques, and, in some cases, antidepressants. Preparing the patients with advanced disease having multiple teeth with hopeless prognosis emotionally for extraction also has to be dealt with carefully by the dentist, if needed using multiple appointments, and the extent of the impact that bad news, such as having to lose teeth, has on an individual is most often dependent on the way in which the information is communicated [101]. Associations between serum antibody levels to periodontal pathogens and early-onset periodontitis. Aggressive periodontitis: ... Necrotizing periodontal disease: Death of periodontal tissue caused by a lack of blood supply can pave the way for a severe infection, and this usually affects people with a suppressed immune system. With the current treatment modalities, successful long-term maintenance of the dentition in a healthy and functional state can be achieved. Research has shown that GTR in conjunction with bone grafting has better potential for regeneration compared with either technique alone [74, 84, 85], and this outcome has been confirmed in aggressive periodontitis also with the use of bioresorbable membranes (Bio-Gide) [75, 80]. B. Novaes et al., “Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in the non-surgical treatment of aggressive periodontitis: cytokine profile in gingival crevicular fluid, preliminary results,”, R. R. De Oliveira, H. O. Schwartz-Filho, A. (Figures 5(a)–5(d)). 1–6, 1999. Other periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis are also suspected of participating in aggressive periodontitis, although the evidence is controversial. There was no associated complaint other than a generalized mild hypersensitivity to cold and sweet food. The disease has a strong genetic predisposition. Lonq-terrn impact on microbial load,”, A. Generalized aggressive periodontitis results in rapid destruction of the periodontium and can lead to early tooth loss in the affected individuals if not diagnosed early and treated appropriately. Host modulation therapy with systemically and locally administered agents is under research for therapy in aggressive periodontitis. A subgingival scaling and root planing was performed following which a povidone iodine 5% irrigation was performed. The majority of the patients refer to dental consultation at this stage of the disease (Figures 3(a)–3(c)). Care was taken to fill the graft to a realistic level and not to overpack the defect. Regeneration of the periodontal supporting structures lost due to periodontal disease so that the form and function of the periodontium is reestablished has been an elusive or difficult-to-achieve goal for periodontal therapists. HSV-2 occurred in 17% of the periodontitis patients. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) is the bacterium most commonly associated with this disease. GTR has shown to have a greater effect on probing measures of periodontal treatment than open flap debridement alone, including improved attachment gain, reduced pocket depth, less increase in gingival recession, and more gain in hard tissue probing at reentry surgery [83]. Aa is considered a vary common oral bacteria, as it's found in the mouths of up to 20 percent of the population. Regular recall appointments were given for maintenance therapy during which the treatment results were well maintained. Various studies have associated Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, formerly known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, with aggressive … Generalized aggressive periodontitis affects almost all of the patient’s teeth. Intraoral examination revealed a normal color of gingiva except in the labial aspect of 31, 32, and 33 where the marginal gingiva was slightly reddish. Of the microflora characterised in aggressive periodontitis, approximately 65-75% of bacteria are Gram-negative bacilli, with few spirochaetes or motile rods present. This underlies the importance of optimal plaque control both by personally employed methods used by the patient himself and professionally employed plaque control measures by the dental team to the patient. A regular recall visit preferably at one-week intervals should be performed especially at the initial stages of the treatment to monitor the efficiency of the patient’s plaque control measures and to assess the response of the patient towards nonsurgical therapy. Over the past 20 years, locally delivered, anti-infective pharmacological agents, most recently employing sustained-release vehicles, have been introduced to achieve this goal [60]. Aa is considered a vary common oral bacteria, as it's found in the mouths of up to 20 percent of the population. Management of GAgP patients essentially consists of a nonsurgical phase, surgical therapy an interdisciplinary therapy and a lifelong supportive periodontal therapy. As the condition progresses, the bacteria that trigger periodontitis may enter the bloodstream and affect other functions of the body. It is very difficult to treat effectively, so this is going to be a long term battle. An evaluation of the response to nonsurgical treatment is done 2-3 weeks after treatment during which the gingival and periodontal status of the patient will be reevaluated and compared with the pretreatment values to assess the response to therapy and to assess the areas which need surgical therapy. 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